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History of Coffee

The Role of Coffee in Ethiopian GDP

In this comprehensive article, readers will explore the rich history, cultural significance, and thriving industry of Ethiopian coffee. The article delves into the different varieties, geographical distribution, and production methods that contribute to the special flavor of Ethiopian coffee beans. It also discusses the challenges that face the industry, both in production and exports, and highlights the economic impact of coffee on Ethiopia’s GDP and livelihoods. Furthermore, the article emphasizes the importance of implementing sustainable and fair trade practices in the coffee sector, providing an outlook on Ethiopia’s coffee amidst the challenges of climate change. Finally, the future prospects and potential innovations are covered, offering valuable insights and policy recommendations for enhancing the contribution of the coffee industry to Ethiopia’s GDP.

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Historical Background of Coffee in Ethiopia

Discovery of coffee in Ethiopia

Ethiopia is widely recognized as the birthplace of coffee, with a rich history and tradition in cultivating the beans. The story of coffee is believed to have begun in the Kaffa region of Ethiopia around the 9th century. It is said that a young goat herder named Kaldi noticed that his goats were unusually energetic after eating the red berries from certain plants. Curious about these mysterious fruits, Kaldi tried them himself and experienced the energizing effects we now associate with coffee.

He shared his discovery with the local monks who were equally impressed with the berries’ rejuvenating powers. They began to use the fruits to help stay awake during their nightly prayer and meditation sessions. As word of this miraculous plant spread, its use and cultivation began to expand across Ethiopia and eventually reached other parts of the world.

It is important to note that this story of Kaldi and the goats is just one of many legends surrounding the origins of coffee. Some accounts suggest that coffee was found in Sudan, brought to Ethiopia by traveling Sufi mystics, while others claim that it was discovered much earlier in history. Despite these varying stories, the consensus is that coffee is indigenous to Ethiopia and has been an essential part of its culture for centuries.

Cultural significance of coffee in Ethiopian society

In Ethiopia, coffee is much more than just a beverage; it holds deep cultural significance that has evolved over time. One of the primary ways this can be seen is through the traditional Ethiopian coffee ceremony. This ritual is an essential part of Ethiopian society and is commonly performed during social gatherings, celebrations, and even as a sign of respect for special guests.

The coffee ceremony involves several carefully choreographed steps. First, the coffee beans are roasted over an open flame until they reach the desired darkness. As the beans roast, they release an aroma that serves as an invitation to those nearby to join the ceremony. Once the roasting is complete, the beans are ground using a mortar and pestle and then brewed in a traditional clay pot called a jebena.

The coffee is typically served with a side of freshly popped popcorn or roasted barley and is accompanied by a thick paste made from ground coffee beans, sugar, and spices called bunna qela. Traditionally, three servings of coffee are offered in the coffee ceremony, starting with the strongest, called Abol, to the lightest, called Bereka.

Coffee also plays a vital role in the Ethiopian economy, as it is the country’s largest export product. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which constitutes a significant portion of the population, has also embraced coffee due to its stimulating effect that helps priests and monks maintain concentration during lengthy prayer sessions.

Development of the Ethiopian coffee industry

Ethiopia’s coffee industry has come a long way since its humble beginnings. Today, it is the fifth-largest coffee producer globally and is known for producing high-quality Arabica coffee in various distinctive flavors. The country has over 1 million coffee farmers, most of them smallholders, and the industry employs a significant portion of the population in processing, trading, and exporting.

The coffee industry in Ethiopia has faced numerous challenges throughout its history, including political instability, fluctuating global coffee prices, and the effects of climate change. However, Ethiopian coffee has earned a prestigious reputation due to its unique and diverse flavor profiles, creating demand and interest from coffee connoisseurs worldwide.

Efforts have been made to improve the sustainability and economic development of Ethiopia’s coffee industry. These include establishing the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in 2008 to provide a transparent marketplace for farmers, as well as the establishment of the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) of Ethiopia to support the growth and improvement of specialty coffee production in the country.

In conclusion, the history of coffee in Ethiopia is a rich tapestry of legends, cultural significance, and economic development. As the birthplace of this beloved beverage, Ethiopia has a special place in the hearts of coffee enthusiasts worldwide, and its coffee continues to evolve and flourish in the global market.

Ethiopian Coffee Production

Ethiopia is recognized as the birthplace of the Arabica coffee plant and has a longstanding coffee culture that dates back centuries. The country’s diverse coffee varieties, production methods, and geographical distribution have contributed to the unique taste profiles and premium quality of Ethiopian coffee beans.

Typology of Ethiopian coffee varieties

There are numerous coffee varieties produced in Ethiopia, each with distinct characteristics and unique flavor profiles. The three major types of coffee varieties found in Ethiopia include the Heirlooms, the JARC varieties, and Regional Landraces.

Heirlooms refer to the indigenous wild coffee varieties that have not been genetically modified, usually found in the forests of the southwest region. These coffee plants display a wide range of flavors and characteristics due to the rich genetic diversity of the species. Some well-known Ethiopian Heirlooms include Yirgacheffe, Sidamo, and Harar.

The JARC (Jimma Agricultural Research Center) varieties are selections of Arabica coffee plants that have been developed and released by the Jimma Agricultural Research Center. These coffee varieties have been selected for their high yield, resistant to diseases, and suitable for specific agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia. Examples of JARC varieties include the 741-series and the 745-series.

Regional Landrace varieties are local coffee cultivars that have been traditionally cultivated by Ethiopian farmers and have not undergone any formal breeding process. They have unique characteristics and are specific to a particular region, reflecting the terroir and local production techniques. Examples include Gesha, Tepi, and Metu Bishari.

Geographical distribution of coffee production in Ethiopia

Ethiopian coffee is grown across various regions of the country, each offering unique growing conditions that contribute to the distinct characteristics of the beans. The major coffee-producing regions in Ethiopia include:

  • Sidamo: Known for its high-quality Arabica coffee, the Sidamo region produces beans with fruity and floral flavors, often with a distinct blueberry note.
  • Yirgacheffe: Located within the Sidamo region, Yirgacheffe is famous for its unique floral and citrus flavors with balanced acidity and medium body.
  • Harrar: The eastern region of Harrar is known for its natural, sun-dried processing method that contributes to the complex and winey flavors of its coffee beans.
  • Jimma: The Jimma region produces both highland and lowland coffee varieties with distinct taste profiles, such as earthy and spicy flavors.
  • Limu: Coffee beans produced in the Limu region are characterized by their wine-like acidity and pronounced fruit flavors.

Production methods and their effects on quality and yield

Ethiopian coffee production largely follows traditional methods, including both wet and dry processing. The wet-processing method involves depulping the cherries, fermenting the beans, and washing them to remove any remaining fruit residue. This method is associated with higher acidity and more refined, floral or fruity flavors in the coffee beans.

In contrast, the dry-processing method (also known as the natural process) involves drying the whole coffee cherries under the sun, allowing the fruit to ferment and develop complex flavors in the beans. This method is commonly used in the Harrar region and contributes to the distinct winey and fruity flavors of Harrar coffee.

The production methods, along with the altitude, climate, and soil composition, play a significant role in determining the yield and quality of Ethiopian coffee. While some farmers have adopted modern practices to maximize yield, the traditional and organic farming methods contribute to the premium quality and unique flavor profiles of Ethiopian coffee beans.

Challenges and threats to the Ethiopian coffee industry

The Ethiopian coffee industry faces several challenges and threats that may affect the sustainability of coffee production in the country. These include:

  • Climate change: Rising temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns may cause a reduction in suitable coffee-growing areas and negatively impact crop yields.
  • Deforestation: Expansion of agricultural land has led to deforestation and loss of biodiversity, impacting the quality and sustainability of Ethiopian coffee production.
  • Diseases and pests: Coffee leaf rust and the coffee berry borer are significant threats to Ethiopia’s coffee crops, necessitating the development of disease and pest-resistant varieties.
  • Market fluctuations: Global coffee prices are volatile, often putting strain on smallholder farmers who lack adequate resources to mitigate the impacts of price fluctuations.
  • Aging coffee trees: Many of Ethiopia’s coffee trees are aging and produce lower yields, emphasizing the need for a well-managed coffee tree rejuvenation program.

Addressing these challenges and threats is essential to ensure the continued success and sustainability of the Ethiopian coffee industry, preserving the unique flavors and quality of Ethiopian coffee beans for future generations.

Economic Impact of Ethiopian Coffee

Economic Impact of Ethiopian Coffee

Ethiopia, known as the birthplace of coffee, has experienced significant economic growth primarily because of its robust coffee industry. Coffee is not only a critical cash crop but also a vital socio-economic pillar for the country. Understanding the economic impact of coffee production in Ethiopia is essential in contextualizing Ethiopia’s wider economic success.

Contribution of coffee to Ethiopian GDP

The Ethiopian economy hugely depends on agriculture, with this sector accounting for approximately 35% of the country’s GDP. Coffee farming is of utmost importance to Ethiopia’s agricultural industry, where around 67% of the country’s export earnings come from coffee alone. As per the World Bank data, coffee exports from Ethiopia generated $843 million in revenue in 2021.

Coffee’s substantial contributions to Ethiopia’s GDP have spurred economic growth, poverty reduction, and development. For instance, it has supported massive infrastructural projects, social welfare programs, and other government investments. As the demand for Ethiopian coffee continues to rise worldwide, with its unique flavors and high quality, the impact on the country’s economy becomes even more significant.

Employment and livelihoods dependent on coffee

The booming coffee industry in Ethiopia has generated millions of job opportunities for Ethiopians, both directly and indirectly. It is estimated that over 15 million people, which equates to nearly 15% of the Ethiopian population, rely on coffee production and the coffee value chain for their livelihoods. The sector provides employment to millions of smallholder farmers, as well as laborers, processors, transporters, exporters, and other stakeholders involved in coffee production and supply.

Coffee production has a substantial impact on the rural economy, with smallholder farmers heavily reliant on coffee incomes for essentials, such as food, healthcare, and education. Improvements in the coffee sector’s performance often translate into better living standards for Ethiopian farmers, creating a significant trickle-down effect within the overall Ethiopian economy.

Indirect economic effects of coffee production

Apart from the direct contribution coffee makes to the GDP, the sector has multiple indirect effects on the Ethiopian economy. The coffee industry’s success has boosted the growth of other sectors linked to the coffee value chain, such as transportation, logistics, storage, and packaging. Additionally, the established coffee industry in Ethiopia has encouraged foreign investors to set their sights on further developing the country’s agricultural sector.

The growing demand for Ethiopian coffee has also garnered attention for the Ethiopian culture and tourism, which are intimately linked to the country’s coffee traditions. Coffee culture, specifically the Ethiopian coffee ceremony, has become a tourism attraction in the country, leading to increased revenue from tourism.

Government policies and initiatives supporting the coffee sector

The Ethiopian government acknowledges the critical role that coffee plays in the nation’s economy and has therefore implemented various policies and initiatives to nurture and develop the sector. The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX), established in 2008, has revolutionized coffee trading by providing a transparent and organized platform for farmers, intermediaries, and exporters.

Moreover, the government introduced the National Coffee Development and Marketing Strategic Plan, focusing on improving coffee quality, increasing production, and strengthening the supply chain. This plan seeks to foster increased competitiveness in the global market and support the wellbeing of coffee farming households.

In response to climate change challenges, the Ethiopian government, in collaboration with international organizations, has undertaken sustainability projects related to coffee production. These initiatives include the introduction of climate-resilient coffee varieties and the promotion of environmentally friendly farming practices.

In summary, Ethiopian coffee plays a tremendous role in the socio-economic fabric of the country. Its contributions to Ethiopia’s GDP, employment generation, rural development, and the environment highlight the ripple effects of the coffee industry on numerous economic sectors. Keeping this in mind, it is essential for Ethiopia to continue investing in and improving its coffee industry to maintain its economic growth trajectory.

Ethiopian Coffee Export

Ethiopia is widely considered the birthplace of coffee, and the country remains one of the leading coffee producers globally. Coffee plays a significant role in Ethiopia’s economy, as it accounts for approximately 30% of the country’s export earnings. The Ethiopian coffee export sector contributes significantly to the GDP, provides employment opportunities to millions of citizens, and plays a crucial role in maintaining the country’s foreign exchange reserves.

Major markets and trading partners

Ethiopia exports coffee to several countries across the world, with the primary markets situated in Europe, North America, and Asia. Some of the major coffee export destinations for Ethiopian coffee include:

  1. European Union: The European Union (EU) is the largest market for Ethiopian coffee, with countries like Germany, Sweden, Italy, Belgium, and Spain being key importers. Approximately 70% of Ethiopia’s coffee exports are destined for the EU market.
  2. United States: The US is the second-largest market for Ethiopian coffee. As the US specialty and gourmet coffee sector continues to grow, the demand for high-quality Ethiopian coffee has also increased.
  3. Japan: The Japanese market accounts for a significant portion of Ethiopia’s coffee exports. Japanese consumers appreciate the distinctive flavors and high quality of the Ethiopian Arabica beans, which have become a popular choice for espresso and drip coffee preparations.
  4. Middle East: The Middle East is an emerging market for Ethiopian coffee, particularly the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
  5. China: With China’s expanding middle class becoming more interested in specialty coffee, Ethiopian coffee has started to gain popularity among Chinese consumers.

Export performance and trends

In recent years, the Ethiopian coffee export sector has witnessed remarkable growth due to increased production and greater global demand for specialty coffee. Key trends affecting Ethiopian coffee exports include:

  1. Increasing demand for specialty coffee: Ethiopian coffee is renowned for its unique flavors and varieties, which cater to the growing global consumer preference for high-quality, artisanal coffee. This trend has resulted in the increased export of specialty coffee beans from Ethiopia, particularly towards more affluent markets like the US and EU countries.
  2. Market diversification: Ethiopia has been making efforts to diversify its export markets and reduce reliance on traditional destinations like Europe and the US. The country has been promoting its coffee in emerging markets like the Middle East and China, which has resulted in increased export volumes to these regions.
  3. Adoption of sustainable and organic practices: In response to growing consumer demand for ethically produced and environmentally friendly products, Ethiopian coffee producers have been adopting sustainable farming practices and obtaining certifications like Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, and Organic.

Roles of private and public actors in coffee exports

Both private and public actors play significant roles in the Ethiopian coffee export sector:

  1. Government: The Ethiopian government has introduced policies and initiatives aimed at boosting coffee production, improving the quality of coffee beans, and enabling market access for farmers. The government has also invested in infrastructure development, such as roads and storage facilities, to facilitate the coffee export process.
  2. Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX): Established in 2008, the ECX is a national trading platform that helps facilitate transactions and standardize coffee grades in Ethiopia. The ECX helps secure better prices for Ethiopian coffee growers by increasing competition among buyers and ensuring transparency in trading activities.
  3. Private sector: The private sector plays an instrumental role in Ethiopia’s coffee export sector, with companies like cooperatives, exporters, and roasters involved in various stages of the coffee value chain. These private entities invest in production, processing, and marketing activities to promote Ethiopian coffee globally.

Challenges facing Ethiopian coffee exports

Despite its potential, the Ethiopian coffee export sector faces several challenges, which include:

  1. Climate change: Climate change is threatening coffee production in Ethiopia, with unpredictable rainfall patterns and rising temperatures impacting crop yields.
  2. Volatile global coffee prices: Fluctuations in global coffee prices make it difficult for Ethiopian coffee growers and exporters to predict revenues, which can negatively impact investment decisions and long-term planning.
  3. Limited access to finance: Ethiopian coffee farmers often struggle to access credit to invest in productivity-enhancing technologies, making it difficult to improve yields and quality.
  4. Weak institutional capacity: Fragmented and under-resourced institutions hinder the effective implementation of policies and initiatives aimed at promoting the coffee export sector.
  5. Inadequate infrastructure: Poor infrastructure, in terms of roads and storage facilities, can lead to delays in transporting coffee to international markets, compromising its quality and reducing its value.

    Emphasis on Sustainability and Fair Trade

As one of the largest coffee-producing countries in the world, Ethiopia has a responsibility to promote sustainable and fair practices in its industry. This is not only to ensure the long-term success and livelihood of its farmers but also to reduce the environmental impact of coffee cultivation.

Environmental impact of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia

Coffee cultivation in Ethiopia has a range of environmental implications. In recent years, the expansion of coffee farms has led to deforestation and habitat loss, particularly in regions with high biodiversity. This has had a negative effect on the country’s wildlife, including the already threatened Ethiopian wolf, as well as tropical bird species.

Pesticide and fertilizer use in coffee cultivation can also have an impact on the environment, as chemicals can end up in local water supplies, affecting both human and animal populations. The runoff of agrochemicals can also contribute to the degradation of soil quality, resulting in lower yields and increasing the vulnerability of the land to erosion.

Intensive water use in coffee farming can lead to the depletion of water resources, particularly during dry seasons when natural water supplies may already be strained. This can lead to conflict between different water users, as well as causing negative consequences for both ecosystems and food security.

Role of fair trade initiatives in promoting sustainable coffee production

Fair trade initiatives can play an important role in promoting sustainable coffee production in Ethiopia. Organizations such as Fairtrade International and the Rainforest Alliance work with local farmers to promote responsible and sustainable farming practices while ensuring that they receive a fair price for their product.

By working directly with farmers, fair trade initiatives can encourage the adoption of environmentally friendly practices such as shade-grown coffee, which can help reduce deforestation and improve biodiversity in coffee-producing regions. These organizations can also promote the use of organic farming practices that decrease the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, reducing the impact of coffee-growing on land and water resources.

In addition to providing farmers with a fair price for their product, fair trade initiatives may also invest in improving social and economic infrastructure in coffee-producing communities, such as schools and healthcare facilities, thus improving the overall quality of life and reducing the pressure on the environment.

Success stories and best practices in sustainable coffee farming

There are numerous success stories and best practices that can be shared to inspire and inform further sustainable coffee farming efforts in Ethiopia. For example, the Dukag Kolla cooperative in Sidama region has successfully implemented agroforestry systems that support coffee farming alongside indigenous tree species, improving biodiversity and local climate resilience.

Another success story is the Biftu Gudina cooperative, located in the Jimma region, which has introduced organic farming practices, such as composting and mulching, to improve soil health and reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers. The cooperative has also adopted measures to conserve water resources and prevent soil erosion.

By encouraging the wider coffee industry to adopt these sustainable farming practices, there is potential to reduce the environmental impact of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia while also supporting the livelihoods of farmers and their communities.

Outlook for Ethiopian coffee in the age of climate change

Climate change poses significant risks to the Ethiopian coffee industry, with potentially severe consequences for the livelihoods of millions of farmers. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and the increased prevalence of pests and diseases could all reduce the productivity and quality of Ethiopian coffee, with some estimates suggesting that as much as 50% of Ethiopia’s coffee-growing areas could become unsuitable for coffee production by 2040.

To mitigate these risks, it is crucial to promote sustainable and climate-resilient farming practices within the Ethiopian coffee industry. By investing in research and development to support the cultivation of coffee varieties that are adapted to changing climatic conditions, as well as encouraging the adoption of agroforestry systems that can help to maintain regional biodiversity and ecological health, Ethiopia can continue to play a leading role in the global coffee market while also safeguarding the livelihoods of its farmers and the environment.

Future Prospects for the Ethiopian Coffee Sector

Projected growth and opportunities for the coffee industry

The Ethiopian coffee sector holds significant potential for growth and industry expansion in the coming years. As the birthplace of Arabica coffee, Ethiopia boasts diverse coffee varieties, quality, and taste profiles. The sector provides an income source for over 15 million Ethiopian households and accounts for approximately 30% of the country’s total export earnings.

With increasing global coffee consumption, especially in emerging markets like Asia (particularly China and India), Eastern Europe, and South America, Ethiopia is well-positioned to benefit from the rising demand. The International Coffee Organization predicts a 30% increase in coffee consumption by 2030, which presents a significant opportunity for Ethiopian coffee producers.

Furthermore, the Ethiopian coffee industry is set to benefit from a growing international consumer interest in high-quality, single-origin, and sustainably produced coffee products. Mountainous terrain, unique microclimates, and favorable weather conditions contribute to the outstanding quality of Ethiopian coffee, making the country a major player in the global specialty coffee market.

Investment in coffee processing, modern farming techniques, and initiatives that support smallholder farmers will promote supply chain efficiency and boost the sector’s growth. For example, the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) has launched a traceability system that ensures transparency and fair prices for farmers, which could result in increased production and export volumes.

Innovations in technology and processing affecting Ethiopian coffee production

Technological advancements and innovative processing techniques can greatly enhance the productivity, sustainability, and profitability of Ethiopia’s coffee industry. Implementing modern farming practices can lead to higher yields and improved quality, while the use of technology can make the sector more efficient through cost reduction, better planning, and management.

Some of the innovative solutions being explored include the following:

  • Precision agriculture: The use of remote sensing technologies, like satellite imagery and drones, can better monitor the health of coffee plants, optimize irrigation and fertilization, and reduce waste and environmental impact.
  • Climate-smart practices: Embracing climate-resilient techniques, such as planting shade trees, using renewable energy sources, and improved soil management practices, can help Ethiopian coffee producers adapt to climate change and reduce the sector’s carbon footprint.
  • Digital platforms: Developing digital payment and financing systems can provide farmers with easy, transparent, and secure access to funding, helping them invest in improved practices and expand their businesses.
  • Processing innovations: Modular wet mills, for instance, are a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable alternative to traditional processing, requiring less water and energy while maximizing coffee quality.

Policy recommendations for enhancing the coffee sector’s contribution to GDP

Economic Impact Ethiopian Coffee

To fully capitalize on the growth potential of the Ethiopian coffee sector, the government must implement sustainable and inclusive policies. These policies should aim to address challenges like supply chain inefficiencies, lack of access to credit for smallholder farmers, and the impacts of climate change on the industry. Key policy recommendations include:

  • Strengthening farmer organizations and cooperatives: Empowering smallholder farmers through increased access to resources, training, and financing will promote good agricultural practices and synergies for marketing and exporting coffee.
  • Enhancing traceability and quality assurance: Implementing a national electronic traceability system will ensure quality control and transparency throughout the supply chain, leading to higher prices and increased international market access for Ethiopian coffee producers.
  • Diversifying export markets: Targeting nontraditional coffee markets through trade partnerships and bilateral agreements can help reduce dependence on a few markets and increase the resilience of the coffee sector.
  • Investing in research and development: Supporting agronomy research and developing improved, disease-resistant coffee varieties can help increase productivity and improve farmers’ resilience to climate change.
  • Encouraging domestic coffee consumption: Promoting domestic coffee consumption through awareness campaigns and private sector partnerships will create a more stable demand for Ethiopian coffee.

These recommendations, when implemented effectively, can contribute to elevating the Ethiopian coffee sector’s growth, thus making it an even more important pillar of the country’s economy.


FAQs on The Role of Coffee in Ethiopian GDP


How significant is coffee’s contribution to Ethiopia’s GDP?

Coffee plays a crucial role in Ethiopia’s economy, contributing around 3-4% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and acting as the primary export commodity (World Bank, 2020).

What percentage of Ethiopia’s export revenue is generated from coffee?

Ethiopia’s coffee export accounts for approximately 30-35% of its total export earnings, making coffee a vital crop for the country’s economic development (World Bank, 2020).

How many Ethiopians rely on coffee production for their livelihood?

Nearly 15 million Ethiopians, or close to 20% of the population, rely on coffee production for their livelihood, either directly or indirectly, through cultivation, processing, or trading (International Coffee Organization, 2013).

What are the major coffee producing regions in Ethiopia?

The primary coffee-producing regions in Ethiopia include Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, Harrar, Limu, Djimmah, Lekempti, and Nekemte. Each region produces coffees with distinct flavors and aroma profiles (Owlstand, 2019).

How is climate change affecting coffee production and its contribution to Ethiopian GDP?

Climate change threatens Ethiopia’s coffee production by causing unpredictable rainfall patterns, drought, and temperature fluctuations, thus negatively impacting coffee yields, quality, and the sector’s contribution to Ethiopian GDP (Moat et al., 2017).


Related Article:

The Impact of Coffee on Job Creation in Ethiopia


World Bank. (2020). Ethiopia. Retrieved from
International Coffee Organization. (2013). Coffee in the Ethiopian Economy. Retrieved from
Owlstand. (2019). Coffee Regions of Ethiopia. Retrieved from
Moat, J., Williams, J., Baena, S., Wilkinson, T., Gole, T. W., Challa, Z. K., … & Davis, A. P. (2017). Resilience potential of the Ethiopian coffee sector under climate change. Nature Plants, 3(5), 17081.