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Coffee in Middle East

The Rise of European Demand for Yemeni Coffee in the 17th Century

In this article, readers will gain an understanding of the rich history of Yemeni coffee and its pivotal role in the global coffee trade. From its origins in Yemen and development through the influence of Sufi monks, to its introduction to European explorers, the article highlights the early involvement of the Dutch and British East India Companies in the Yemeni coffee trade. As coffee became more popular in Europe, Yemeni coffee established its competitive advantage with its unique flavor and rarity, which significantly impacted Yemen’s economy and society. However, challenges such as emerging coffee-producing regions, political and economic issues, and changes in coffee consumption eventually led to a decline in Yemeni coffee’s prominence in the global market.

European Demand Yemeni Coffee

Background of Yemeni Coffee

Origins of coffee in Yemen

The origins of coffee can be traced back to the ancient coffee forests of the Ethiopian plateau. The stimulant and energizing effects of coffee were discovered by an Ethiopian goat herder named Kaldi, who observed his goats were more energetic after consuming the red cherries of the coffee plant.

The coffee plant eventually found its way to Yemen, where it was cultivated and domesticated around the 15th century. Yemen was the first country to cultivate coffee on a large scale and helped to spread the crop worldwide. The city of Mocha, located on the Red Sea coast of Yemen, became the center of the coffee trade in the 17th and 18th centuries. Mocha coffee, which is renowned for its distinctive flavor and chocolaty notes, owes its name to this historic Yemeni city.

Yemen’s coffee cultivation history is closely connected to the religious Islamic world. Coffee was initially grown in garden plots near monasteries to provide monks with a fresh and local supply of the energizing drink. Monks, travelers, and traders from other regions who visited or resided in Yemen helped to disseminate information about coffee and its cultivation. Over time, demand for this powerful drink, which grew in popularity as an invigorating beverage and an aid in spiritual focus and contemplation, drove the expansion of coffee cultivation and the development of the Yemeni coffee industry.

Development of coffee cultivation and trade

The cultivation and trade of coffee helped shape the economic landscape of Yemen. The fertile regions of Haraz, Bani Mattar, Yafe’ and Raima, with their high elevation and temperate climate, were ideal for growing coffee plants. As Yemeni coffee gained a reputation for exceptional taste and quality, these regions experienced significant growth and development.

Yemeni farmers adopted a unique terraced agriculture system to maximize the cultivation area and preserve water resources. Coffee plants were grown in terraces carved into steep mountain slopes, utilizing the region’s rugged topography to their advantage. This method of coffee cultivation still prevails today in the traditional Yemeni coffee farm.

Yemen’s strategic location on the Red Sea made it a significant hub for trade between East Africa, Europe, and Asia. European traders, particularly the Dutch, were instrumental in establishing trade routes and pioneering the global exchange of coffee. Slowly, coffee trees were smuggled out of Yemen and found their way to other coffee-growing regions, such as Java and the Caribbean. However, Yemen continued to be the leading exporter of coffee until the early 18th century.

Role of Sufi monks in popularizing coffee

Sufi monks played a crucial role in the popularization of coffee through their use of the beverage for religious and social purposes. The Sufi order, known for its mysticism and spirituality, was prominent in Yemen during the advent of coffee cultivation. Coffee was considered a “wine of Islam,” as it was used as a substitute for the forbidden alcoholic wine in Islamic teachings.

The Sufis valued coffee for its ability to stimulate and heighten their senses, allowing them to engage in extended periods of prayer, meditation, and spiritual contemplation. As Sufi monks traveled to different regions to spread their faith, they also took the knowledge of coffee with them. This led to the adoption of coffee drinking in various parts of the Islamic world.

Coffee houses began to emerge throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey by the 16th century. These establishments facilitated intellectual and social gathering where people could engage in discourse, debate, and games. The popularity of coffee houses soon spread to Europe, leading to the establishment of coffee houses in cities such as London, Paris, and Vienna. The Yemeni origins of coffee unraveled a remarkable story of global growth and cultural exchange, shaping the world’s social and sensory landscape. Today, Yemeni coffee is renowned for its rich history, complex flavors, and deep-rooted tradition in the daily lives of people across the globe.

Early European Exploration and Interaction with Yemen

Yemen, located at the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, has had a long and storied history of interaction with other cultures, particularly Europe. From ancient times, Yemen was an important link in the trade routes between East Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world. The early European exploration and interaction with Yemen contributed to shaping global commerce, political dynamics, and cross-cultural exchange.

First reports of Yemeni coffee by European travelers

Yemen occupies a special place in the history of coffee, as it is believed to be the origin of the Coffea arabica plant, which produces the highest quality coffee beans. From the 15th century onwards, Yemen became known for its coffee cultivation in the highlands, particularly around the southern port city of Mocha. The first Europeans to visit Yemen and witness the coffee trade were likely the Portuguese, who reached the Yemeni coastal areas in the late 15th century.

In the 17th century, European travelers, traders, and missionaries began to visit Yemen more frequently, and the reports they brought back to their countries greatly contributed to the spread of coffee’s popularity in Europe. The Dutch traveler Peter Mundy, traveling through Mocha in 1630, wrote about the Yemenis’ fondness for coffee and how coffee beans were exported to other parts of the Islamic world. A few years later, the Italian merchant and traveler Pietro Della Valle, who visited Yemen in 1634-35, provided some of the earliest detailed descriptions of how coffee was prepared and consumed in Yemeni society.

These early European accounts of Yemeni coffee and its consumption not only piqued the curiosity of European readers but also laid the groundwork for the later establishment of coffeehouses across Europe. Yemeni coffee would become a popular and exotic drink in European cities like Paris, London, and Vienna in the 17th and 18th centuries, which fueled a growing demand for coffee beans in Europe’s burgeoning market.

Initial trade relationships between Yemen and Europe

While Yemen had long been a part of a global trading network that included the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean, it was the Portuguese arrival at the mouth of the Red Sea in the early 16th century that marked the beginning of direct European interest in Yemen. Under the exploratory leadership of Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese empire, European powers began to seek direct access to the rich trading network of the Indian Ocean, which acted as the conduit for the valuable, rare, and exotic products desired by Europeans.

The British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company began to establish relations with Yemeni rulers and merchants in the 17th century, with the main objective of gaining access to the profitable coffee trade. Yemen’s port city of Mocha was the primary site of interaction between Europeans and Yemenis. It became a bustling hub for international trade and a crossroads for European, African, and Asian merchants.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch emerged as the primary European traders with Yemen, as they managed to establish a strong presence and significant influence in the region. They held control over the island of Socotra near the entrance of the Gulf of Aden, which allowed them to closely monitor and control the flow of maritime trade in the area. Other European powers, such as the British and the French, were also involved in the Yemeni coffee trade but had to rely on their connections with local Yemeni merchants to secure the valuable commodity.

The relationship between European traders and the Yemenis was not without tension and conflict. Rivalries between European powers led to power struggles, while misunderstandings between Europeans and Yemenis often resulted in disputes and even violence. However, it is undeniable that the early European exploration and interaction with Yemen, particularly through the coffee trade, left a lasting impact on Yemeni society and its relations with the European world. As European powers became more and more involved in global trade, Yemen became further connected to a broader network of intercontinental exchanges and international politics.

Establishment of the Dutch and British East India Companies

British East India Company

The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC) and the British East India Company are two of the most notable mercantile companies that were involved in the Indian Ocean trade during the 17th and 18th centuries. Both were established to gain a competitive edge in various profitable trade ventures, including the Yemeni coffee trade.

The Dutch East India Company and Yemeni coffee trade

The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602 and was the first multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the basis for the modern corporate model. The formation of the VOC was primarily driven by the lucrative spice trade, particularly involving the Indonesian islands. The company’s success and emergence as a major economic power in the Indian Ocean trade were due to its innovative approach to consolidate various Dutch merchants under a single organization.

During the 17th century, Yemeni coffee, also known as Mocha coffee, became increasingly popular, and the Dutch quickly recognized its potential. The Dutch established relationships and trade with Yemen, which was an important center for the cultivation and distribution of coffee at the time. Due to the high value of coffee and its increasing demand in Europe, the Dutch sought to control the coffee trade, effectively monopolizing it in the process.

In its pursuit of dominance over the Yemeni coffee trade, the Dutch East India Company stationed its fleet along the Red Sea’s strategic chokepoints to capture the valuable coffee cargo from passerby Yemeni ships. They also transported the coffee back to Europe through the Cape of Good Hope, distributing it across the continent.

The Dutch went even further, by taking Yemeni coffee seedlings and eventually transplanting them to their colonies in the East Indies. This allowed the Dutch to cultivate their own coffee plantations on the Indonesian island of Java and break the Yemeni Arabs’ coffee monopoly, which in turn fueled the global spread of coffee cultivation.

The British East India Company and Yemeni coffee trade

The British East India Company was founded in 1600, predating the Dutch East India Company by two years. The British company was established with a royal charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I, with the aim to secure England’s position in the Indian Ocean trade, particularly the lucrative spice trade.

Like the Dutch, the British East India Company was interested in the rapidly-growing demand for Yemeni coffee in Europe. However, realizing that the Dutch had already secured a significant share of the market, the British opted for a different strategy in order to benefit from the coffee trade.

Rather than trying to outcompete the Dutch, the British East India Company focused on establishing relationships with the Yemeni coffee merchants and ensuring a consistent supply of the product for the British market. This approach allowed the British to avoid direct conflicts with the Dutch over the coffee trade while still profiting from it.

In addition, the British East India Company took advantage of its relations with the Ottoman Empire, which governed Yemen at the time. Through diplomatic negotiations and trade agreements, the Company secured commercial privileges that facilitated their involvement in the Yemeni coffee trade. The British also established coffee houses in London and other major cities, consequently driving up the local demand for Yemeni coffee.

In conclusion, both the Dutch and British East India Companies played key roles in shaping the course of the Yemeni coffee trade, each utilizing different strategies to secure their share of the profitable market. Their involvement in the trade introduced coffee to Europe on a grand scale, transforming it into a popular and lucrative commodity.

Popularity of Coffee in European Markets

Coffee has become an indispensable part of European culture and lifestyle, with millions of Europeans drinking coffee daily. The popularity of coffee in Europe can be traced back several centuries and is linked to the expansion of trade routes and the influence of coffee houses. In this article, we will explore the rise of coffee houses in Europe, the increased demand for coffee beans, and the cultural and social impacts of coffee on European society.

The rise of coffee houses in Europe

The history of coffee houses in Europe can be traced back to the 17th century, when the first coffee house was opened in Venice in 1645. Coffee houses soon became popular gathering places for people from all walks of life, who would congregate to discuss politics, philosophy, and the arts. Over time, these establishments became known as “penny universities,” due to the affordable price of coffee and the intellectual conversations that took place within their confines.

The spread of coffee houses across Europe was rapid, with notable establishments opening in cities such as London, Paris, and Amsterdam during the 17th century. In England, for example, the first coffee house opened in 1652, with hundreds more opening across the country over the next few decades. The coffee house phenomenon was not restricted to large cities, as similar establishments also appeared in smaller towns and even rural areas.

In addition to serving as social hubs, coffee houses in Europe also played an essential role in the dissemination of news and information. This can partly be attributed to the fact that many newspapers and pamphlets were first distributed or read in coffee houses, making them important centers of knowledge and debate. Business transactions and networking also took place within the walls of these establishments, further contributing to their popularity and widespread appeal.

Increased demand for coffee beans

As coffee houses grew in popularity across Europe, so too did the demand for coffee beans. In the 17th and 18th centuries, coffee was mostly imported from the Ottoman Empire, with the port of Mocha in Yemen serving as the primary trading hub for coffee beans. European trading companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company, played a significant role in the importation and distribution of coffee beans throughout Europe.

The increased demand for coffee beans also led to the establishment of coffee plantations in European colonies, particularly in the Caribbean and Latin America. As the production of coffee expanded, the price of the beverage decreased, making it more accessible to a wider range of consumers across the continent.

Cultural and social impacts of coffee in Europe

The popularity of coffee in Europe has had a profound impact on the culture and society of the continent. One of the most significant effects of coffee on European culture is its connection to the Enlightenment, an intellectual movement that emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many renowned Enlightenment figures, such as Voltaire and Rousseau, were known to spend considerable time in coffee houses, which were seen as spaces conducive to intellectual exchange and critical thinking.

Coffee has also played a role in shaping the daily routines and social customs of Europeans. The act of drinking coffee has become embedded in various aspects of European life and is often associated with specific social occasions or times of day. For example, the Italian espresso culture, characterized by the consumption of short, strong coffee shots, typically takes place in the morning or after meals. Similarly, in Sweden and Finland, the tradition of “fika,” or coffee break, is an essential part of daily life and serves as a moment for social interaction and relaxation.

Additionally, the presence of coffee in European markets has facilitated the growth of numerous coffee-related industries, such as roasting, brewing, and coffee-making equipment. The evolving tastes and preferences of European consumers have also led to the rise of specialty coffee shops, offering a diverse range of coffee options emphasizing quality, flavor, and sustainability. In conclusion, the popularity of coffee in Europe has shaped and enriched the continent’s culture and society, leaving an indelible imprint on its history and identity.

Yemeni Coffee’s Competitive Advantage

Yemeni coffee has cultivated a competitive advantage in the global market due to its unique flavor profile and quality, control of supply by Yemeni traders, and the rarity and exclusivity associated with its beans. In this article, we will explore the broader implications of these factors and their impact on the international coffee industry.

Unique flavor profile and quality

Yemeni coffee offers an unparalleled flavor profile that sets it apart from other coffees on the market. This distinct quality is attributed to the exceptional growing conditions found in Yemen – particularly in the regions of Haraz, Bura, and Yafih – that provide an ideal environment for coffee cultivation. The combination of high altitude, volcanic soil, and optimal rainfall creates a unique terroir that is inherently linked to the beans’ specific taste.

Additionally, the traditional methods used to cultivate and process the beans further emphasize their unique characteristics. Farmers traditionally grow coffee plants using terraced farming techniques, which allow them to efficiently maximize their land use potential while minimizing soil erosion. Moreover, the beans are sun-dried and processed using a method called “natural” or “dry” processing, which involves leaving the coffee cherries out in the sun to dry before removing the seeds. This method imparts a distinct fruity and complex flavor profile to the final product.

The meticulous attention paid to the cultivation and processing of Yemeni coffee results in a product that exhibits bold flavors, complex acidity, and a rich, full-bodied mouthfeel. The prominence of these qualities has garnered recognition in the global market, giving Yemeni coffee a competitive edge over other beans typically found in the industry.

Control of supply by Yemeni traders

Another key factor contributing to Yemeni coffee’s competitive advantage is the control of its supply by Yemeni traders. Historically, Yemen has been a significant player in the global coffee trade, with the ancient city of Mocha serving as a primary port for the distribution of coffee beans across the globe. This historical connection has allowed Yemeni traders to establish vital relationships within the international coffee community.

By maintaining control over the supply of coffee beans, Yemeni traders can effectively manage the distribution of their product. This control enables them to ensure the quality and consistency of Yemeni coffee, thus preserving its reputation in the market. Furthermore, the control of supply allows traders to establish prices that reflect the rarity and exclusivity of the beans, ensuring they remain a high-value commodity in the global industry.

Rarity and exclusivity of Yemeni coffee

One of the cornerstones of Yemeni coffee’s competitive advantage in the global market is its rarity and exclusivity. The limited availability of Yemeni beans provides a level of mystique and attraction that cannot be replicated by more common coffee varieties.

The factors contributing to this exclusivity include the small-scale production of Yemeni coffee beans due to the arduous cultivation process, limited land availability, and challenging geopolitical issues faced by the country. The combination of these factors results in a limited supply of beans, making Yemeni coffee a scarce and sought-after commodity.

Moreover, the captivating narrative surrounding Yemeni coffee – including its history as the first coffee to be consumed commercially and its unique cultivation and processing methods – further fuels its allure in the global market. This narrative is heavily intertwined with the rarity and exclusivity of the beans, effectively creating a brand and identity that engenders an air of luxury and prestige.

In summary, the competitive advantage of Yemeni coffee in the global coffee industry is largely tied to its unique flavor profile and quality, control of supply by Yemeni traders, and the sense of rarity and exclusivity associated with the beans. These factors, coupled with a rich historical narrative and an inherent connection to the origins of coffee, serve to create a product that is highly sought after by coffee connoisseurs and enthusiasts alike, driving its position and value in the market.

Impact on Yemen’s Economy and Society

The introduction and spread of coffee cultivation and trade had a profound impact on Yemen’s economy and society. Yemen, situated on the Arabian Peninsula, has been an important hub of global trade for centuries. In the 15th century, coffee, which originated in Ethiopia, was introduced to Yemen, where it gained popularity and soon became a major commodity. The growth of the coffee industry and trade had far-reaching implications for Yemen’s economy, social structure, and international relations.

Growth in Yemeni coffee production and trade

Yemeni coffee production

Following the introduction of coffee in Yemen, it was cultivated extensively across the region, particularly in areas with suitable climates for coffee growth. Coffee production proliferated in regions such as al-Mukha, Taiz, and the mountains around Ibb, where the volcanic soil and temperate climate provided the ideal environment for coffee cultivation. Yemeni farmers applied their knowledge of irrigation and agricultural techniques to grow high-quality coffee beans, which soon gained a reputation for superior quality and taste.

The demand for Yemeni coffee grew exponentially, both locally and internationally, as it became popular with Middle Eastern, Ottoman, and European customers. Yemeni coffee was especially sought after in the coffee houses of Cairo, Istanbul, and Venice. As a result, Yemen became the center of the coffee trade in the world for many years.

Trade networks were established to facilitate the transportation and distribution of coffee across Yemen, as well as to neighboring regions and international markets. Camels were used to transport coffee beans from the mountains to coastal ports such as al-Mukha, which became a bustling entrepôt for coffee trade. Ships sailing to Ottoman and European ports laden with Yemeni coffee fueled international demand and contributed to the growth of the global coffee trade.

Increased wealth and influence of Yemeni coffee merchants

The growth in coffee production and trade led to a substantial increase in the wealth and influence of Yemeni coffee merchants. These merchants played a crucial role in establishing and expanding trade networks, negotiating prices, and forming alliances with foreign traders and buyers.

The wealth accumulated from the coffee trade supported the local economy and stimulated the growth of various industries and infrastructure developments. Merchant families often built grand mansions, funded religious and cultural institutions, and established businesses beyond the coffee industry. The prosperity of the coffee merchants impacted social hierarchies in Yemen, as their wealth allowed them to gain influence and status, often exceeding that of traditional nobility.

Social changes related to the coffee trade

The social impact of the coffee trade in Yemen extended beyond the merchant class, as coffee consumption became more widespread among various social groups. Coffee houses, known as qahwa, sprung up in urban centers, acting as hubs for socialization, intellectual discourse, and cultural exchange. These gathering places became central to Yemeni society and played a crucial role in shaping public opinion and fostering debate on various topics, from philosophy and religion to politics and economics.

The cultivation and trade of coffee also had implications for labor practices and economic opportunities in rural areas. Farmers and laborers engaged in coffee production benefitted from the growing demand for their crop, leading to more stable employment and improved standards of living for many families.

At the broader level, the success of the Yemeni coffee trade spurred interest in other regions in cultivating coffee, expanding the crop’s range and introducing it to new markets. This ultimately led to the diversification of global coffee production and the emergence of competing coffee-growing regions, such as Java and Mocha, which would shape the global coffee trade in the centuries to come.

In summary, the introduction and growth of coffee cultivation and trade in Yemen had far-reaching consequences on the nation’s economy, society, and international relations. The coffee trade enriched Yemeni merchants, transformed social dynamics, and fostered cultural exchange and intellectual debate, leaving a lasting legacy on Yemeni society and the global coffee industry.

Challenges and Decline

The coffee industry has experienced significant changes throughout its history, with a series of challenges leading to fluctuating demand and supply, as well as shifts in the cultural perception and importance of the beverage. While Yemen was once at the forefront of coffee production, it has since faced a decline due to several factors including the rise of competing coffee-producing regions, political and economic issues in the country, and shifts in coffee consumption and preferences in Europe.

The rise of competing coffee-producing regions

In the 17th and 18th century, Yemen was the primary source of the world’s coffee trade, contributing to the growing popularity of the beverage in Europe. However, as demand for coffee continued to increase, the need for coffee cultivation to expand beyond Yemen became apparent. European countries including the Netherlands and France began to establish coffee plantations in their colonial territories, with regions such as Indonesia and the Caribbean entering the coffee production stage.

As these new coffee-producing regions emerged, competition in the market grew more robust, leading to a decline in Yemen’s coffee industry. Additionally, advancements in transportation and technology allowed these newer regions to cultivate, process, and distribute coffee more efficiently than Yemen. This combination of factors severely impacted Yemen’s once-dominant role in the global coffee trade. Additionally, countries such as Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam have since emerged as the largest coffee producers, further widening the gap between Yemeni coffee production and the rest of the market.

Political and economic issues in Yemen

Yemen has faced a number of political and economic challenges in recent decades. The country is currently experiencing one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world due to a civil war that has been ongoing since 2015. This instability has led to widespread famine, as well as affecting infrastructure, making it difficult for farmers to cultivate and distribute their crops. Consequently, the coffee industry, which relies heavily on the consistent and efficient flow of resources and trade, has been significantly hampered.

Moreover, Yemen’s economy has been in decline for many years, with unemployment and inflation levels reaching record highs. The nation’s agricultural sector has also been adversely impacted by water scarcity, which has reduced the yield of coffee plants and made it harder for farmers to produce high-quality beans. These issues have had a compounding effect on Yemen’s coffee industry, which is unable to compete with producers from more stable and resource-abundant regions.

Shifts in coffee consumption and preferences in Europe

coffee preferences Europe

Over the years, coffee consumption patterns and preferences in Europe have shifted significantly, with many consumers increasingly seeking more complex and diverse flavors. This shift in consumer behavior has given rise to the “specialty” or “third-wave” coffee movement, which has driven demand for beans from a wider range of origin countries and growing regions.

Yemeni coffee, once revered for its unique and exotic flavors, has struggled to compete with the increasing variety and quality demanded by consumers in this new market landscape. Issues related to production, such as inconsistency in quality and limited availability, have made it difficult for Yemeni coffee to maintain its niche in an increasingly crowded market. Furthermore, the increasing focus on ethical sourcing and environmentally-friendly practices in the coffee sector has placed additional pressure on Yemen’s coffee industry. As the country grapples with conflict and resource limitations, these factors have contributed to the ongoing decline of Yemen’s coffee industry.

While the outlook for Yemen’s coffee industry may be bleak, it is essential to recognize the role the nation played in shaping the history and cultural significance of coffee. Today, coffee remains an integral part of Yemeni culture and identity, and there are ongoing efforts to revitalize the industry through initiatives such as promoting sustainable farming practices, providing support to local farmers, and fostering international partnerships. Yemen’s rich coffee heritage provides hope that the nation’s industry can one day regain its former prominence, despite the challenges it faces.


FAQs on the Rise of European Demand for Yemeni Coffee in the 17th Century


1. What factors contributed to the rise of European demand for Yemeni coffee in the 17th century?

European shipping routes, the establishment of the first coffeehouses, and the emerging culture surrounding coffee consumption led to an increased demand for Yemeni coffee during the 17th century.

2. How did the coffee plant first come to Yemen from its origins in Ethiopia?

Sufi monks from Yemen brought the coffee plant to their homeland after discovering its energizing effects during a pilgrimage to Ethiopia. This started Yemen’s coffee cultivation, which soon became renowned globally.

3. What role did the Dutch play in the Yemeni coffee trade during the 17th century?

The Dutch East India Company played a significant role in the export of Yemeni coffee to Europe, introducing the beverage to the continent and establishing a substantial and long-lasting demand.

4. How did the Yemeni city of Mocha become synonymous with coffee during the 17th century?

Mocha, an important port city in Yemen, became the primary export hub for the country’s coffee trade; hence, the word “mocha” became synonymous with the rich, chocolatey coffee Yemen produced.

5. What were the consequences of the rising European demand for Yemeni coffee on the global coffee trade?

The high demand for Yemeni coffee stimulated the expansion of coffee plantations in different regions, such as Java and the Americas, diversifying the market and setting the stage for global coffee trade.

6. How did Yemeni coffee influence European coffeehouse culture?

Yemeni coffee fueled the rise of European coffeehouses, which quickly became social and intellectual hubs for discussing politics, business, and art, playing a pivotal role in the Enlightenment and modern European society.