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History of Coffee

The Relationship between Coffee and Ethiopian Traditional Medicine

In this article, readers will journey through the history of coffee in Ethiopia, exploring its origins and the role it plays in Ethiopian culture. The article then dives into the fundamentals of Ethiopian traditional medicine, detailing its development, commonly used plants, and the role of healers and practices. Blending both topics, the piece highlights the use of coffee in traditional medicine, elaborating on its health benefits, medicinal preparations, and coffee-based rituals.

Furthermore, the article presents scientific evidence supporting coffee’s medicinal advantages, including antioxidant properties, neuroprotective effects, cardiovascular health benefits, and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The integration of coffee in contemporary Ethiopian healthcare is also discussed, examining its combination with conventional medicine, disease prevention strategies, and economic value.

Finally, the article concludes by exploring future prospects for coffee and Ethiopian traditional medicine, identifying collaborative research opportunities, conservation, and sustainability concerns, and sharing the knowledge with the global health community.

coffee Ethiopian traditional medicine

History of Coffee in Ethiopia

The Origin of Coffee in Ethiopia

Ethiopia is widely regarded as the birthplace of coffee, and the beverage has played a significant role in the country’s cultural, social, and economic life for centuries. The exact origin of coffee in Ethiopia can be traced back to the Kaffa region, located in the southwestern part of the country. According to legend, a goat herder named Kaldi discovered the coffee plant around the 9th century when he noticed that his goats became unusually energetic after eating the red berries of the coffee cherries.

Curious about the energizing effect of the mysterious berries, Kaldi shared his discovery with local monks at a nearby monastery. The monks crushed the cherries and boiled them in water, creating a concoction that helped them stay awake during their long prayer sessions. As word spread about the stimulating effect of the brew, the popularity of the drink grew, and coffee cultivation began in Ethiopia.

The exact chronology of the spread of coffee cultivation and consumption throughout Ethiopia is not well documented, but it is believed that coffee was first grown in the wild forests of Kaffa. Over time, the cultivation of coffee spread to other regions in the country, including Harar and Sidamo, which are now known for their distinctive coffee varieties.

Spread of Coffee Cultivation and Consumption

The popularity of coffee in Ethiopia led to its spread to the Arabian Peninsula, where it was first cultivated outside its native region. The port city of Mocha in Yemen became a significant center for the coffee trade, and coffee gained the name “mocha” after this city. From the Arabian Peninsula, coffee spread to Europe in the 17th century, where it became a popular beverage among intellectuals and artists. Coffeehouses popped up across the continent, serving as social gathering places and facilitating the exchange of ideas and conversation.

The expansion of coffee cultivation was accelerated due to trade and colonization, as European colonizers introduced coffee plants to their colonies in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Today, coffee has become a global commodity and an essential aspect of many cultures around the world.

Despite coffee’s widespread popularity, Ethiopia has managed to maintain a unique and deep connection to its native beverage. The country remains one of the largest coffee producers globally, with its coffee industry employing millions of people and providing a substantial portion of the nation’s income.

Role of Coffee in Ethiopian Culture

Coffee is an integral part of Ethiopian culture, and its consumption is entrenched in daily life, rituals, and customs across the country. The Ethiopian coffee ceremony is a prime example of the significance of coffee in Ethiopian culture. This traditional ceremony involves the roasting, grinding, and brewing of coffee beans in front of invited guests, who participate in the three rounds of coffee service. The ceremony is often performed by women and is a sign of respect and friendship among family, friends, and neighbors.

The coffee ceremony is an opportunity for community members to come together, discuss local news and events, and strengthen social ties. It is a symbol of Ethiopian hospitality and is an essential aspect of various occasions, including religious holidays, births, funerals, and weddings.

In addition to the coffee ceremony, coffee features prominently in everyday life in Ethiopia. Coffee is commonly consumed throughout the day, often accompanied by traditional snacks or as a pick-me-up during breaks from work. The importance of coffee in Ethiopian culture is reflected in the naming of the country’s main national language, Amharic, which originates from the word “amara,” meaning “coffee.”

In conclusion, the rich history of coffee in Ethiopia has contributed to the nation’s global reputation as the original home of the beloved beverage. The cultivation and consumption of coffee have deep roots in Ethiopian culture, as seen through the traditional coffee ceremony and the role coffee plays in daily life. As coffee continues to be a significant export product for the country, Ethiopia’s connection to coffee retains both historical significance and vital economic implications for the nation’s future.

Overview of Ethiopian Traditional Medicine

Ethiopian traditional medicine is a holistic approach to health practiced for centuries in Ethiopia. It comprises various forms of medical treatments, employing a wide range of therapeutic techniques and ethnomedicinal plants. The practice exists in tandem with orthodox medicine, providing care and treatment to a significant portion of the Ethiopian population.

Origins and Development

Ethiopian traditional medicine has a long and complex history that traces its roots back to ancient civilizations, such as the Axumite Kingdom and the Zagwe Dynasty. These ancient societies had well-established systems of medical care, including the use of natural remedies derived from indigenous plants. The practice also carries influences of traditional Egyptian, Arabian, and Indian medical systems.

A significant part of Ethiopian traditional medicine’s development can be attributed to religious and cultural interactions throughout history. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church played a crucial role in preserving and promoting the practice, integrating it into religious teachings and rituals. Furthermore, Ethiopia’s diverse cultural landscape, consisting of more than 80 different ethnic groups with their own unique medicinal practices, has contributed to the rich and varied landscape of traditional medical knowledge.

Ethiopian traditional medicine has evolved over the centuries, absorbing and adapting to new indigenous knowledge and outside influences. It has grown into a comprehensive healthcare system, addressing numerous physical, mental, and spiritual ailments.

Commonly Used Medicinal Plants

Ethiopia is home to a vast number of plant species, many of which have been utilized for medicinal purposes for generations. Traditional Ethiopian healers, known as “debteras,” have accumulated extensive knowledge about the use of these plants, handing down their expertise from one generation to the next. There are over 1,000 documented medicinal plants in Ethiopia, with many more yet to be discovered and studied.

Some of the most commonly used medicinal plants in Ethiopian traditional medicine include Allium sativum (garlic), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf), Ocimum lamiifolium (hoary basil), Nigella sativa (black cumin), and Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). These plants possess various therapeutic properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anti-tumor effects, among others. The plants are typically prepared in different ways, according to the specific ailment being treated. The most common forms of administration include decoctions, infusions, and topical applications.

Role of Traditional Healers and Practices

Traditional Ethiopian healers hold a significant place in the country’s healthcare system. They are custodians and practitioners of the vast wealth of indigenous medical knowledge passed down through generations. The healers gain their knowledge through family lineage, apprenticeship, or divine revelation. There are various types of healers, such as herbalists, spiritual healers, bone setters, and midwives, further illustrating the diverse and holistic nature of traditional medical care in Ethiopia.

These practitioners utilize a wide range of medicinal plants, minerals, and animal products in their treatments. Additionally, they perform various traditional healing practices, such as massage, bone-setting, spiritual rituals, and psychotherapy. This emphasis on a multifaceted approach demonstrates the holistic and integrative nature of Ethiopian traditional medicine.

Integration with Modern Medicine

Ethiopian traditional medicine has long coexisted with modern biomedicine. The two systems have a complex and intertwined relationship, often complementing and enhancing each other’s efficacy. Many Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of healthcare, while others seek a blend of traditional and modern medical treatments.

The Ethiopian government recognizes the importance of traditional medicine, establishing policies and initiatives to support the practice while maintaining rigorous scientific examination. The National Drug and Therapeutics Policy and the Traditional and Modern Medicine Research Directorate are just two examples of government entities that aim to foster the integration and development of Ethiopian traditional medicine.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching the therapeutic potential of Ethiopian medicinal plants, with numerous studies uncovering promising results. This evolving research landscape highlights the value of Ethiopian traditional medicine, validating the time-honored wisdom of indigenous practitioners and promoting greater understanding and acceptance of this ancient healing system.

Coffee in Ethiopian Traditional Medicine

Ethiopian traditional medicine coffee

Coffee, a globally popular beverage, has its origins in the ancient forests of Ethiopia. The plant and its beans have a long history in Ethiopian communities, where its medicinal and ritualistic uses have been practiced for centuries. Ethiopian traditional medicine is an ancient practice that relies on an extensive knowledge of local plants and recipes built on generations of empirical evidence. Coffee is one of the most revered plants in Ethiopian culture, and it has been used for various medicinal purposes since time immemorial.

Traditional Uses of Coffee for Health

In Ethiopian traditional medicine, coffee is an essential ingredient in various treatments, and it is believed to cure multiple ailments. Ethiopian traditional healers, known as “Debtera” or “Emchi,” utilize coffee in different forms to address health issues like headaches, common colds, and digestive problems. Furthermore, coffee is believed to have a plethora of benefits in maintaining general health and improving overall well-being.

Some traditional uses of coffee as medicine in Ethiopia include:

  1. Stimulant: Coffee is a central nervous system stimulant due to its caffeine content, and it is used to treat drowsiness, fatigue, and depression.
  2. Analgesic: The tannins and other alkaloids present in coffee are known to have analgesic properties, helping in relieving pain related to headaches and migraines.
  3. Antioxidant: The high antioxidant content in coffee plays a significant role in reducing oxidative stress and protecting against various diseases and chronic conditions such as inflammation, heart disease, and cancer.
  4. Diuretic: Coffee has diuretic properties that aid in flushing toxins and excess fluids from the body, promoting renal and urinary health.

Medicinal Preparations and Blends

In Ethiopian traditional medicine, various medicinal preparations are created using coffee beans, coffee leaves, and other plant-based ingredients. These concoctions are customarily administered in the form of a drink or as a topical remedy. Some of the common coffee-based traditional remedies include:

  1. Coffee leaf tea: This beverage is made by boiling fresh or dried coffee leaves and is believed to alleviate fatigue, provide mental clarity, stimulate digestion, and deter intestinal parasites.
  2. Coffee bean infusion: By soaking coffee beans in hot water, a powerful tonic is created, which is said to provide an immediate energy boost and improve cognitive function.
  3. Coffee-based medicinal blends: Ethiopian healers also create unique blends using coffee beans, local herbs, spices, and honey to address specific ailments. One such example is “Gey shenkora,” a mixture of roasted coffee beans, garlic, and honey, used to cure the common cold.

Role of Coffee-based Rituals in Healing Practices

For Ethiopian communities, coffee is more than just a beverage; it is a symbol of hospitality, ritual, and communication. Coffee ceremonies are central to their way of life and form an essential part of healing practices. By gathering around the coffee ceremony, people share their problems, aspirations, and joys, promoting a sense of unity and collective energy. This social aspect of coffee ceremonies aids in reducing stress, which is a key contributor to many physical and mental health issues.

The intimate connection between the coffee ceremony and healing in Ethiopia can be understood through the concept of “tizita” – a term that embodies the notion of memory, nostalgia, and shared experiences. In the coffee ceremony, tizita acts as a vital thread that connects the community and provides a sense of continuity and health. By remembering and sharing the experiences of their ancestors and practicing age-old customs, Ethiopians find solace, healing, and strength.

To summarize, coffee is an integral part of Ethiopian traditional medicine and has been used for centuries to address various health issues, maintain general well-being, and strengthen interpersonal relationships. The combination of coffee’s medicinal properties and its role in promoting a sense of community through coffee ceremonies make it an essential ingredient in Ethiopian healing practices.

Scientific Evidence Supporting Coffee’s Medicinal Benefits

Coffee has been a popular beverage for centuries, and recent research has shed light on its potential health benefits. Numerous scientific studies have investigated the association between coffee consumption and a reduced risk of various diseases, attributing these benefits to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals in coffee beans. In this article, we will explore the scientific evidence supporting coffee’s medicinal benefits, including its phytochemical content, antioxidant properties, neuroprotective effects, cardiovascular health benefits, and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity.

Phytochemicals Found in Coffee

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds derived from plants that have various biological activities, many of which can contribute to the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Coffee contains a diverse array of phytochemicals, including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and trigonelline.

Caffeine is perhaps the most well-known phytochemical found in coffee and is largely responsible for its stimulatory effects. It acts as an adenosine antagonist in the central nervous system, resulting in increased alertness, reduced fatigue, and improved cognitive function.

Chlorogenic acids, on the other hand, are a group of esters formed between quinic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids, such as caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids. These compounds have numerous health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Trigonelline is another coffee phytochemical with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties.

Antioxidant Properties

Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, mainly due to its chlorogenic acid content. These antioxidants help to neutralize free radicals – unstable molecules that can cause oxidative stress and damage in the body. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of various health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Several scientific studies have demonstrated that coffee consumption can significantly increase the total antioxidant capacity in the body. Additionally, research has shown that the absorption of coffee-derived antioxidants in the human body is relatively efficient, with chlorogenic acids being absorbed in the small intestine and subsequently metabolized and excreted.

Neuroprotective Effects

Numerous studies have explored the potential neuroprotective effects of coffee consumption, particularly its role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

The cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine are well established, with research showing that it can improve cognitive function, particularly in terms of alertness, attention, and executive function. Caffeine’s ability to block the action of adenosine, a neurotransmitter that promotes sleep and relaxation, is believed to be responsible for these cognitive effects.

Beyond caffeine, other coffee phytochemicals like chlorogenic acids and trigonelline have also been found to have neuroprotective effects. These compounds may contribute to neuroprotection through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloidogenic properties.

Cardiovascular Health Benefits

The relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular health has been the subject of extensive research, with several studies suggesting that moderate coffee intake may be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke.

The potential cardioprotective effects of coffee are likely due to the combined actions of its various bioactive compounds, including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and caffeine. For example, the antioxidant properties of coffee may help to reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species and prevent oxidative damage to blood vessels and heart tissue. Additionally, coffee’s anti-inflammatory properties could help to modulate the inflammatory response in cardiovascular diseases.

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial Activity

The anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of coffee are also well established in scientific research. Chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, and other coffee phytochemicals have been shown to possess both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.

The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee phytochemicals are thought to be mediated by their ability to inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

In terms of anti-microbial activity, studies have shown that coffee compounds can inhibit the growth of various bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The exact mechanisms by which coffee compounds exert their antibacterial effects are not yet fully understood, but they may include damage to bacterial cell wall and disturbance of bacterial enzyme function.

In conclusion, scientific evidence supports various medicinal benefits of coffee, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial properties. These beneficial effects are mainly attributed to the presence of phytochemicals, such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids, and trigonelline. However, it is important to note that excessive coffee consumption can also have adverse health effects, and it is crucial to consume coffee in moderation for optimal health benefits.

Contemporary Use of Coffee in Ethiopian Healthcare

coffee Ethiopian healthcare

In Ethiopia, coffee has been a cultural and social staple for centuries. It plays a vital role not just in the daily lives of Ethiopians but also in traditional medicine practices. The contemporary use of coffee in Ethiopian healthcare has combined the intrinsic health benefits of the beverage with conventional medicine practices. This synergy has created a unique approach to disease prevention and economic value in the Ethiopian health sector.

Combining Coffee and Conventional Medicine

In Ethiopian traditional medicine, coffee has been used to treat various illnesses and as a health supplement. The antioxidants in coffee have been believed to help protect against certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s, and some types of cancer. The stimulant properties of coffee – mainly due to its caffeine content – are also believed to improve mental alertness and reduce the risk of cognitive decline.

While the scientific community continues to investigate the health benefits of coffee, many healthcare professionals in Ethiopia incorporate coffee into their conventional treatment plans. For example, some health practitioners may recommend patients to consume coffee moderately in conjunction with a prescribed medication. The idea is that the combined effects of coffee and conventional drugs can amplify the therapeutic benefits and potentially reduce the need for higher doses of medication.

In some cases, Ethiopian doctors may also incorporate coffee enemas as part of their patients’ treatment plans. Coffee enemas involve the infusion of coffee into the rectum, which is believed to help cleanse the body of toxins, improve digestion, and enhance liver function. The use of coffee enemas has been controversial in the mainstream medical community due to the lack of rigorous scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness. However, many Ethiopian practitioners continue to use them, drawing from a long history of traditional medicine practices that value the use of natural remedies.

Coffee-Supported Disease Prevention Strategies

Understanding the potential health benefits of coffee in Ethiopian healthcare has led to the development of disease prevention strategies that focus on lifestyle modifications, including coffee consumption. Such preventative strategies involve educating the public about the responsible consumption of coffee to reduce the risk of diseases that have been linked to coffee consumption.

Ethiopian healthcare providers advocate for the moderate consumption of coffee (usually two to three cups per day) coupled with a healthy diet and exercise, as a way of promoting overall health and wellness. This approach is grounded in the understanding that, while coffee may have potential health benefits, excessive consumption can also lead to side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and sleep disturbances.

Additionally, healthcare programs in Ethiopia often focus on coffee-related occupational hazards for workers in the industry. One example is the prevention of respiratory diseases caused by exposure to coffee dust. Proper safety gear and protocols are implemented to mitigate this risk.

Economic Value of Coffee in Health

With coffee being a significant export for Ethiopia’s economy, it is unsurprising that the healthcare sector has also embraced the value of coffee. For example, health-oriented cafes are becoming more common in urban areas, offering patrons a place to enjoy a cup of coffee while being educated about its health benefits. Medical professionals may also integrate coffee into their practice to attract patients or as part of any additional integrative health recommendations.

Moreover, the link between coffee and health has stimulated the growth of the Ethiopian organic coffee market. As the demand for healthier, chemical-free coffee beans increases globally, Ethiopian coffee farmers benefit economically by tapping into this niche market.

In summary, the contemporary use of coffee in Ethiopian healthcare is a reflection of the country’s deep cultural and historical connection to this beloved beverage. While the scientific evidence regarding the health benefits of coffee continues to evolve, Ethiopian healthcare professionals and traditional medicine practitioners alike recognize the potential value of coffee in promoting overall health, preventing diseases, and as an economic driver.

Future Prospects for Coffee and Ethiopian Traditional Medicine

Ethiopian traditional medicine, practiced for thousands of years, can provide valuable resources and knowledge for a modern, global health community. Coffee, native to Ethiopia, has long been an essential component of the Ethiopian economy and culture. As coffee becomes increasingly popular across the globe, the future prospects of Ethiopian traditional medicine and coffee may intertwine in many ways.

Collaborative Research Opportunities

The combination of Ethiopian traditional medicine and coffee presents numerous research opportunities. Researchers can explore the possibilities of extracting active compounds from both Arabica and Robusta coffee varieties as well as other native Ethiopian plants used in traditional medicine, like “koso” and “gara.” These representative species may hold valuable pharmacological properties that could provide novel treatments for various diseases and disorders.

In addition to examining the traditional use of coffee in Ethiopian medicine, researchers can also investigate the potential benefits of coffee consumption on overall health, particularly its potential to mitigate chronic diseases. For instance, recent studies have suggested that moderate coffee consumption may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

To facilitate these research efforts, a collaborative approach is essential. Ethiopian institutions and research centers should work closely with international organizations, educational institutes, and private companies to support and fund studies aiming to explore the therapeutic benefits of coffee and other traditional medicinal plants. This will create a shared network of knowledge, ensuring that Ethiopian traditional medicine experiences continuous growth on a global scale.

Conservation and Sustainability Concerns

As the demand for coffee grows, it is crucial to ensure the sustainable production and conservation of the plant. The Ethiopian government, along with international aid and conservation organizations, should work towards developing a comprehensive strategy for preserving the country’s unique biodiversity. This strategy can include measures such as reforestation, sustainable agriculture practices, and the establishment of protected areas.

The conservation of coffee plants in Ethiopia is also directly linked to the conservation of traditional medicinal knowledge. By preserving the plants necessary for traditional medicine, researchers can continue to learn from the historical wisdom of Ethiopian medicinal practices while simultaneously protecting the country’s natural resources.

Furthermore, equitable distribution models are necessary to ensure that the revenue generated by the sale of coffee and potential medical treatments derived from Ethiopian plants is shared fairly with local communities. Ethical guidelines addressing intellectual property rights, benefit-sharing, and the protection of traditional knowledge should be in place, allowing Ethiopian communities to reap the benefits of their resources and expertise.

Sharing Knowledge with the Global Health Community

coffee and traditional Ethiopian medicine

As the potential therapeutic benefits of coffee and traditional Ethiopian medicine become more widely recognized, it is vital to share this knowledge with the global community. As a result, an exchange of scientific data, best practices, and clinical advances should be fostered among researchers, traditional healers, and clinical practitioners.

International conferences, scientific publications, and collaborative partnerships present valuable opportunities for the exchange of research findings and traditional medicinal knowledge, promoting a dialogue between Ethiopian healers and modern medicine. Additionally, educational initiatives such as intercultural seminars and training sessions provided by NGOs can promote the understanding of the ethnobotanical heritage that comes from both Ethiopian traditional medicine and coffee.

To summarize, the future prospects for Ethiopian traditional medicine and coffee extend far beyond the plants themselves. By embracing collaborative research, ensuring the sustainability of resources, and sharing knowledge with the global health community, Ethiopia can play a crucial role in finding innovative solutions to promote health and well-being worldwide.


FAQs on The Relationship between Coffee and Ethiopian Traditional Medicine


1. What role does coffee play in Ethiopian traditional medicine?

In Ethiopian traditional medicine, coffee is known for its various medicinal purposes, such as stimulating central nervous system, alleviating symptoms of mild depression, and providing relief from gastrointestinal ailments like constipation (Gebeyehu, 2020).

2. Are there any specific coffee varieties used in Ethiopian traditional medicine?

Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is the most common variety used in Ethiopian traditional medicine, as it is indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia and known for its rich flavor and numerous health benefits (Tefera, 2018).

3. How is coffee incorporated into traditional healing practices in Ethiopia?

Ethiopian traditional healers often include coffee in their remedies, utilizing different parts of the coffee plant for various medical conditions. Coffee leaves, beans, and roots can be consumed in the forms of raw, dried, powdered, or as a decoction (Gebeyehu, 2020).

4. What other traditional medicinal practices are used in conjunction with coffee?

In Ethiopia, coffee is combined with various plants, herbs, and animal products like honey to create remedies for numerous ailments, such as headaches, gastrointestinal issues, and respiratory infections. Coffee is also integrated into spiritual healing practices like coffee ceremonies (Tefera, 2018).

5. Is there scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of coffee in traditional medicine?

There is a growing body of scientific research highlighting coffee’s potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and some cancers (O’Keefe et al., 2018). However, more research is needed to fully understand its role within Ethiopian traditional medicine.

6. Are there any side effects or interactions to be aware of when using coffee for medicinal purposes?

While coffee can be beneficial for some conditions, excessive consumption can lead to undesirable effects like increased heart rate, sleep disturbances, and digestive issues. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using coffee for medicinal purposes, to ensure safe and proper guidance (Yilma et al., 2021).


Gebeyehu, E. (2020). Starbucks in Ethiopia: Repeating Moldova? The Effect of GMO on Traditional Drugs. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 8(1), 9-20.

Tefera, A. (2018). Ethiopian Traditional and Herbal Medications and their Interactions with Conventional Drugs. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 18(1), 909-918.

O’Keefe, J. H., DiNicolantonio, J. J., Lavie, C. J., & Malinski, T. (2018). Coffee for Cardioprotection and Longevity. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 61(1), 38-42.

Yilma, E., Nedi, T., & Assefa, S. (2021). Coffee consumption, its awareness, and its acute effect among school adolescent students. Heliyon, 7(1), e05913.