In this article, the reader will learn about the rich history, cultural significance, and social aspects of the coffee ceremony as practiced across different regions of the world. The article will then guide the reader through the preparation, materials, and equipment needed to conduct an authentic coffee ceremony, and provide step-by-step directions for hosting or attending such events. Additionally, information about the accompanying elements such as traditional snacks, incense, and music will be discussed, along with variations in coffee ceremonies across the globe. Finally, etiquette for guests and tips for adapting the coffee ceremony to modern times and different cultures will be provided, allowing the reader to fully appreciate the beauty and traditions of this timeless practice.
The Origin and Significance of the Coffee Ceremony
The coffee ceremony is a traditional, time-honored practice that permeates various aspects of culture in countries where it is celebrated. The ceremony is a testament to the strong bond that coffee has with its people – from its birthplace in Ethiopia to the Middle East, where the practice also thrives. This article will explore the historical background, cultural significance, and social aspects of the coffee ceremony.
Historical background of the coffee ceremony
The coffee ceremony finds its roots in the birthplace of coffee itself: Ethiopia. As legend has it, a goatherd named Kaldi discovered coffee in the 9th century when he observed his goats becoming energetic after eating the red cherries of the coffee plant. He shared these observations with a local monk, who then used the roasted beans to brew a beverage.
The Ethiopian coffee ceremony was born from the coffee plant’s power to invigorate and bring people together. It is an ancient practice that has been passed down through the generations, celebrating the integral role that coffee plays in the lives of the Ethiopian people.
It is likely that the coffee ceremony spread to other countries as coffee itself traveled across the globe. Historically, coffee beans were transported from Ethiopia to countries such as Yemen, where the practice also took root. The tradition has, over time, been adapted to the local culture in each region where it is practiced.
Cultural significance in different regions
The coffee ceremony is more than just a ritual for brewing and consuming coffee. It is a deeply ingrained practice that symbolizes hospitality, unity, and community. In regions where the ceremony is practiced, it is a crucial component of social life, and its significance may vary slightly from one culture to another.
In Ethiopia, the coffee ceremony is traditionally conducted by a woman who follows a meticulous process to prepare the perfect brew. Guests are invited to three rounds of coffee, each signifying a different stage—Abol (first round), Tona (second round), and Baraka (third round). The third round is said to bring a blessing to those who partake in the beverage. The process involves roasting fresh green coffee beans, grinding them using a traditional mortar and pestle, and then brewing them in a Jebena, a clay pot.
In Yemen, the coffee ceremony is known as Qishr, where the outer husks of the coffee cherries are used to make a mildly caffeinated infusion. It is served alongside the actual coffee called Bunn. During a Qishr ceremony, these beverages are accompanied by various sweets, nuts, and dried fruits, signifying hospitality and generating a pleasant atmosphere for conversation.
The Middle East is also known for its coffee ceremonies, particularly in countries like Turkey, where they have a unique coffee brewing technique. The finely ground coffee beans are prepared in a copper pot called a cezve and simmered with sugar and water, producing a rich, dark, and dense coffee. The Turkish coffee ceremony historically held a crucial role in marriage customs, often setting the stage for a prospective couple’s first meeting.
Social aspects of the coffee ceremony
The coffee ceremony affords an opportunity for people to come together, engage in meaningful conversation, share stories, and deepen their sense of community. The invitation to partake in a coffee ceremony is viewed as a sign of respect and friendship.
The slow, deliberate process of preparing the coffee provides ample time for social interaction. It allows guests to engage in conversation, discuss community matters, and exchange ideas. The sharing of the final product—the aromatic, rich coffee—is a communal experience that reinforces interpersonal connections.
In many cultures where the coffee ceremony is practiced, it is also a time dedicated to addressing issues, seeking guidance, and resolving disputes. For Ethiopian women in particular, the ceremony often serves as a safe space for discussing relationships, family issues, and personal concerns.
In conclusion, the coffee ceremony is an age-old practice that unites communities and fosters a strong sense of social cohesion. Its origins may be traced to the Ethiopian highlands, but its enduring presence in cultures around the world serves as a testament to the powerful role that coffee has played and continues to play in the lives of millions.
Preparation for the Coffee Ceremony
The coffee ceremony is a traditional Ethiopian and Eritrean ritual where people come together to enjoy freshly roasted and brewed coffee. It is a social event that fosters communication, bonding, and hospitality among friends, family, and neighbors. The ceremony can also be a spiritual event, as it often involves blessings and prayers for a prosperous, happy, and healthy life. Preparing for the coffee ceremony involves several steps, such as selecting and roasting coffee beans, grinding the beans, preparing the coffee brewing equipment, and setting up the ceremony environment.
Selecting and roasting coffee beans
The first step in preparing for the coffee ceremony is selecting high-quality, green coffee beans. It is important to choose fresh, unroasted coffee beans that display a vibrant green color and are free of defects or blemishes. In Ethiopia, beans are usually sourced from local markets or even picked from the wild coffee trees that grow around the country.
Once the green coffee beans have been selected, they will be roasted over an open flame in a pan, ideally made of clay or metal. The hostess of the ceremony will continuously stir the beans to ensure even roasting, and this process typically takes about 15 minutes, depending on the amount of beans being roasted. The beans should be removed from the heat once they reach a brownish-black color and emit a distinct, aromatic smell. Roasting the beans is an essential step, as the process not only brings out the natural flavors in the beans but also produces a unique, smoky aroma that is characteristic of the coffee ceremony.
Grinding coffee beans
After the beans have been roasted, they will be cooled down and then ground into a fine powder using a traditional mortar and pestle, known as a mukecha and zenezena in Ethiopia. The hostess will rhythmically pound the beans, turning them into a fine powder that will later be used to make the coffee. In some modern households, an electric grinder may be used, though many still prefer the traditional manual grinding method to maintain the authenticity of the ceremony.
Preparing the coffee brewing equipment
Before brewing the coffee, the hostess will prepare the necessary brewing equipment. The most critical component is a traditional Ethiopian coffee pot called a jebena. Made of clay or ceramic, the jebena features a round base, a long neck, and a spout. It is important that the jebena is thoroughly cleaned and preheated before brewing.
In addition, a serving tray or table with small ceramic coffee cups known as “sini” or “cini” will be set up. These cups are typically small, handle-less, and adorned with intricate designs. They are designed to hold a small amount of coffee, as the beverage is traditionally consumed in small, potent sips.
Setting up the ceremony environment
The hostess will set up a welcoming environment for the guests by spreading freshly cut grass or flowers on the floor, creating a pleasant, fragrant atmosphere. The space will be adorned with traditional Ethiopian artifacts, such as woven baskets or colorful textiles.
Incense, typically made from frankincense or myrrh, will be burned during the ceremony to add to the sensory experience and to complement the aroma of the coffee. The hostess will light the charcoal burner or stove, where the jebena will be placed for brewing.
As the coffee is brewed, guests will gather around, sitting on low stools, and engage in conversation or listen to traditional music. Once the brewing is complete, the hostess will pour the coffee for the guests, usually serving the eldest first as a sign of respect. The coffee is typically served with sugar, honey, or salt, and the ceremony may include multiple rounds of brewing for guests to enjoy a variety of coffee strengths. Snacks, such as popcorn, traditional bread, or roasted barley, may also be shared among guests, making the Ethiopian coffee ceremony a truly immersive, communal, and hospitable experience.
A Traditional Coffee Ceremony: Step-By-Step
In many cultures around the world, coffee is more than just a beverage; it is a cherished ritual that involves patience, craftsmanship, and a deep appreciation for the flavors and aromas of the coffee beans. A traditional coffee ceremony offers an opportunity for friends and family to gather, listen to stories, and engage in conversation while savoring the beverage’s rich aromas and flavors. The following step-by-step guide will walk you through the process of hosting a traditional coffee ceremony.
Cleaning the coffee beans
The first step in preparing a traditional coffee ceremony is to clean the coffee beans. This involves selecting the beans, sorting out any impurities, and cleaning them thoroughly. In some cultures, women will gather around the beans, sharing stories and conversation as they carefully inspect each bean for defects or dirt.
Once the beans have been sorted and inspected, they can be washed gently with water to remove any remaining debris. It’s essential to allow the beans to air-dry completely after washing to prevent mold or mildew from forming. Using a clean cloth or paper towel, spread the beans out in a single layer and leave them to dry for several hours or overnight.
Roasting the coffee beans
After the beans have been cleaned and dried, the next step in a traditional coffee ceremony is to roast them. This is done using a specialized roasting pan, known as a menkeshkesh, which is typically made of iron or clay.
To roast the beans, preheat the menkeshkesh over a medium flame, ensuring that it is evenly heated before adding the beans. Once the pan is hot, add the coffee beans and continuously stir them to ensure even roasting. As the beans roast, they will emit an enticing aroma and gradually turn from green to a deep, rich brown color.
Once the beans have reached the desired level of darkness, remove them from the heat and transfer them to a cool, flat surface to prevent over-roasting. It’s essential to keep a close eye on the beans during this process, as it’s easy for them to go from perfectly roasted to burnt in a matter of seconds.
The art of grinding the beans: manual vs. electric
Grinding the beans is an essential step in the coffee-making process, as it allows the flavors and oils to be released from the body of the coffee. There are two main methods of grinding the beans: manual and electric.
In a traditional coffee ceremony, the beans are generally ground using a manual grinder known as a mortar and pestle. Grinding the beans by hand provides a highly tactile experience, allowing the individual to appreciate the aromas and textures of the coffee while they work.
To grind the beans manually, place a handful of beans into the mortar and gently grind them with the pestle. This may take some time, so be patient and enjoy the process. Once the beans have been ground to a fine consistency, set them aside and repeat the process with the remaining beans.
Electric grinders can also be used to grind the beans, although this method is often considered less desirable from a cultural standpoint. If you choose to use an electric grinder, simply transfer the roasted beans into the grinder and process them until they reach the desired consistency.
Boiling water and brewing coffee
The final step in the coffee ceremony process is brewing the coffee. To do this, begin by boiling water in a special coffee pot known as a Jebena or a Cezve, depending on your cultural preference. These pots are often made from clay or metal and are designed to accommodate the unique brewing process.
As the water begins to boil, carefully add the ground coffee to the pot. Once the coffee and water are combined, reduce the heat to a simmer and allow the mixture to brew for several minutes. The amount of time the coffee brews will depend on the desired strength, with longer brewing times producing a stronger cup of coffee.
Once the coffee has reached the desired strength, remove the pot from the heat source and allow it to settle for a moment. This will enable any remaining coffee grounds to sink to the bottom of the pot.
To serve the coffee, carefully pour it into small cups or demitasse, taking care not to disturb the grounds at the bottom of the pot. It’s customary to serve the coffee with sweeteners or accompaniments, such as honey, sugar, or even popcorn, depending on your cultural customs.
With these step-by-step instructions, you can create and share the experience of a traditional coffee ceremony with your friends and family, enjoying the aromas, flavors, and company that make this ritual so special.
Serving Coffee During the Ceremony
Serving coffee during a ceremony is an age-old tradition observed in many cultures around the world. The process is not just about offering coffee to guests but involves a more profound meaning, which includes showing hospitality, respect, and maintaining social connections. This custom preserves the essence of the ceremony by incorporating traditional elements, proper etiquette, and procedures.
The role of the host or hostess
In most coffee ceremonies, the host or hostess plays a vital role. They are responsible for making their guests feel welcomed and comfortable in the gathering, ensuring the coffee served is of the best quality, and following the traditional steps and rules associated with the ceremony.
The host or hostess may be an older family member or someone who is well-versed in the customs of the ceremony. They must be well-organized, prepared, and attentive to every detail.
The ceremony usually begins with the host or hostess preparing the coffee beans for brewing. They roast the beans, grind them, and complete the brewing process while involving the guests, either by engaging them in conversation or by seeking their opinion on the coffee being served. Overall, the host or hostess ensures that the guests feel an essential part of the ceremony, and the overall experience is enjoyable and memorable.
Proper etiquette for serving coffee
Serving coffee during a ceremony involves observing proper etiquette and showing respect to the guests present. Here are some general guidelines to follow concerning the etiquette of serving coffee in a ceremony:
Serve coffee in small cups or traditional coffee cups that are appropriate for the size of the gathering.
Serve the coffee from a traditional pot while holding the pot with your right hand, pouring from a slight height to create a bit of froth on the surface of the drink.
While serving the coffee, it is customary to start with the guest of honor or the oldest person present if there’s no designated special guest.
Pour coffee for everyone present, making sure not to skip anyone or leave anyone out.
When offering a cup to a guest, pass the cup with your right hand, as it is considered respectful in many cultures. The guest should also receive it with their right hand.
Allow guests to add their sugar, milk, or other additives based on their personal preferences.
When a guest has finished their coffee, offer them more or acknowledge their satisfaction and thank them for their participation.
The significance of the first, second, and third rounds of coffee
The three rounds of coffee during a ceremony are an essential aspect of the tradition. Each round of coffee represents different values and serves as a platform for deepening relationships among the guests.
The first round, also known as the “Abol,” signifies welcoming and acclimating the guests to the environment. The abol is meant to activate the senses and set a positive atmosphere in the room. In some cultures, the first round of coffee also serves as an ice breaker to encourage conversation and socializing among guests.
The second round, or “Tona,” is the stage of deepening relationships and understanding among the guests. In this round, people tend to share more about their lives, including personal and professional experiences, beliefs, and aspirations. The second round encourages openness and a sense of closeness among those present.
The third round, known as “Baraka” or “siret” in some cultures, is the final round of coffee that has a symbolic meaning. At this point, guests have consumed enough coffee to establish trust, camaraderie, and a sense of community. In many traditions, the third round is believed to imbue guests with blessings, positive vibes, and a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment as they leave the gathering.
In conclusion, serving coffee during a ceremony is a time-honored tradition laden with deep symbolism and cultural significance. From the role of the host or hostess to the importance of following proper etiquette and understanding the meaning behind each round of coffee, every aspect of a coffee ceremony contributes to fostering a sense of unity, hospitality, and respect for all those present.
Accompanying Elements of the Coffee Ceremony
A coffee ceremony is a traditional and enjoyable way to enjoy coffee, especially in countries like Ethiopia, where it is an important part of the culture. The ceremony involves more than just the brewing and drinking of the coffee. It includes various elements, such as traditional snacks and treats, incense and fragrances, and music and poetry, that make the experience unique and memorable. This article will discuss these accompanying elements in detail.
Traditional snacks and treats
No coffee ceremony is complete without traditional snacks and treats. These not only add an extra layer of enjoyment to the event, but also provide an opportunity for guests to bond and socialize. In different cultures, various types of snacks are served depending on local customs and preferences. The snacks can range from sweet to savory and often complement the flavors of the coffee being served.
In Ethiopia, for example, the most common snack served during a coffee ceremony is popcorn. The popcorn is often made fresh and served warm, slightly salted, and free of added flavorings or oils, allowing the natural taste of the corn to complement the coffee. Another popular snack is locally made bread called ‘dabo,’ which is often served alongside coffee in homes, restaurants, and cafes.
Other traditional snacks that might be served during a coffee ceremony include roasted barley, peanuts, or various types of cookies and biscuits. These treats are typically enjoyed alongside the coffee, giving each guest the chance to sample and savor different flavors during the ceremony.
Using incense and fragrances
The use of incense and fragrances to create a calming, comfortable atmosphere is a central component of many coffee ceremonies around the world. The burning of incense can serve various purposes, such as cleansing the air, setting a particular ambiance, or invoking memories and emotions that are in line with the spirit of the ceremony.
In Ethiopia, for example, the burning of frankincense and myrrh during a coffee ceremony has both cultural and religious significance. The fragrance produced by the incense is believed to have spiritual benefits, purifying the space and inviting blessings for the participants and their families. Additionally, the aroma of the incense helps to heighten the senses and enhance the experience of enjoying the coffee.
The use of incense and fragrances is not limited to Ethiopian coffee ceremonies. In various cultures, different types of incense or essential oils may be used to create a unique atmosphere and deepen the experience of enjoying coffee.
Music and poetry in the background
Another important element of the coffee ceremony is the use of music and poetry in the background. Music can provide a soothing and enjoyable background to the event, helping to create a sense of unity and togetherness among participants. In many ceremonies, traditional music that is reflective of the local culture is played, often accompanied by singing or chanting from the participants.
In some cases, poetry is also an integral part of the coffee ceremony. The recitation of traditional poetry or the sharing of original compositions can add a deeply personal and emotional dimension to the event, allowing participants to connect on more than just a superficial level. Poetry can serve as a means of reflection and contemplation, inviting the participants to consider deeper themes and ideas as they enjoy their coffee together.
These accompanying elements of the coffee ceremony – traditional snacks, incense and fragrances, and music and poetry – serve to create a multisensory experience that combines flavor, aroma, sound, and emotion. This holistic approach to enjoying coffee is a far cry from the rushed, disposable coffee culture that is prevalent in many parts of the world today. As such, participating in a coffee ceremony is a unique opportunity to slow down, connect with others, and truly savor the coffee-drinking experience.
Attending a Coffee Ceremony: Etiquette for Guests
A coffee ceremony is a significant cultural and social event in many communities, particularly in Ethiopia and Eritrea. As a guest, understanding and following proper etiquette is crucial to showing respect and appreciation for the host and the ceremony. This guide will help you learn the appropriate etiquette when attending a coffee ceremony, from the moment you receive the invitation to the time you contribute to the event.
The polite way to accept a coffee invitation
Upon receiving an invitation to a coffee ceremony, it is essential to respond promptly and respectfully. This can be done via phone, in-person, or through a written note, depending on the mode of invitation. Express gratitude for the invite and inform the host of your attendance. If you cannot attend, express regret and provide a brief explanation.
When attending the ceremony, it is essential to dress modestly and appropriately, as per the cultural norms of the host community. This shows respect towards the host and the occasion. It is also a good idea to arrive on time or slightly early, as punctuality is an important aspect of etiquette.
Showing respect and appreciation during the ceremony
During the coffee ceremony, pay attention to the host’s instructions and observe their actions. Remember that the ceremony is a ritual, and each step has meaning and significance. The host will often begin by washing and roasting the coffee beans. While the coffee is being prepared, guests should observe the process closely and admire the host’s skill.
Once the coffee is served, it is customary to wait until the host takes the first sip before indulging yourself. Enjoy the coffee slowly and offer compliments on its taste and aroma, even if it may not suit your preference. If you are not a coffee drinker, it is still essential to accept the coffee graciously and hold the cup until it is time to leave. Refusing the offer is considered disrespectful.
Engaging in conversation and being an active participant
Coffee ceremonies are social gatherings, and conversation is an integral part of the event. Be prepared to engage in discussions on various topics, from daily life to deeper subjects like religion and politics. Listen attentively and contribute respectfully, even if the conversation does not fall within your area of expertise.
It is crucial to be an active participant during the ceremony, which includes partaking in any singing, dancing, or storytelling that may occur. Also, remember that the ceremony typically consists of three rounds of coffee, each with its unique name and significance. Do not leave before the end of the third round, as it signifies the completion of the ceremony and the host’s blessings for the guests.
Knowing when and how to contribute to the event
As a guest, it is polite to bring a small gift for the host, such as flowers or a cultural food item. This can be presented upon arrival or during the ceremony, depending on the context and community norms.
During the coffee ceremony, a basket of bread, popcorn, or other snacks will likely be passed around. Contribute to the communal snack by taking some, but be mindful not to overindulge or appear greedy.
If you have any dietary restrictions that prevent you from consuming the coffee or snacks, inform the host in advance or discreetly at the beginning of the ceremony. They will likely appreciate your honesty and accommodate your needs.
Lastly, express your gratitude for the experience and the host’s efforts before you leave. A heartfelt thank you and some words of appreciation for the host’s hard work will go a long way in showing your respect for the coffee ceremony and the cultural customs.
Variations in Coffee Ceremonies Around the World
Coffee ceremonies are an important aspect of many cultures around the world. They offer a chance not only for individuals to bond with one another but also for people to honor their heritage and express their hospitality. In this article, we will explore the variations in coffee ceremonies around the world, highlighting the similarities and differences in customs, how these ceremonies have adapted to modern times and new locations, and how they are incorporated into special events and gatherings.
Similarities and differences in customs
Though coffee ceremonies may differ in their specifics, there are some key similarities that can be found across cultures. Preparing and serving the coffee is often a solemn and elaborate process, with particular attention paid to the quality and presentation. In many cases, it is the host or hostess who is responsible for the ceremony, and they take great pride in providing the best possible experience for their guests.
One of the most well-known coffee ceremonies comes from Ethiopia, where it is believed that coffee originated. The Ethiopian coffee ceremony is a time-consuming process that begins with the roasting of green coffee beans over an open flame. The beans are then ground using a mortar and pestle, and brewed with water to create a strong, rich coffee. The coffee is traditionally served with salt or sugar, and often accompanied by a small snack. This ceremony is a significant social event, allowing for conversation and connection between the participants.
In Turkey, the coffee ceremony is known for its distinct brewing method, which involves boiling finely ground coffee and water together in a small, copper pot called a cezve. Traditionally, the coffee is served with a glass of water and a piece of Turkish delight. This allows guests to cleanse their palate before and after enjoying the strong, rich coffee. Similar to the Ethiopian ceremony, Turkish coffee plays an important role in social gatherings and has deep cultural significance.
In countries like Sweden and Finland, the custom of “fika” is an essential part of everyday life. Fika involves taking a break from work or other activities to enjoy a cup of coffee and a sweet treat, often accompanied by conversation with friends or colleagues. The emphasis here is less on the ceremonial aspect and more on the social and cultural importance of the shared experience.
Adapting to modern times and new locations
As populations around the world become more diverse, coffee ceremonies have evolved and adapted to fit new cultural norms and expectations. In many cases, traditional customs are still upheld and passed down through generations, while new elements are incorporated to create a unique blend of old and new.
For example, many Ethiopian and Turkish immigrants living in other countries have maintained the traditional coffee ceremonies from their homelands, often hosting them as a means of preserving their heritage and sharing it with others. Similarly, the Swedish and Finnish practice of fika has spread beyond the Nordic countries, gaining popularity in workplaces around the world as an opportunity for employees to socialize and recharge.
Incorporating the coffee ceremony into special events and gatherings
Whether it’s an intimate gathering with friends or a more formal event, incorporating a coffee ceremony can bring a unique and memorable touch. In places where coffee ceremonies hold importance, such as in Ethiopia, the ceremony may be included as part of weddings or other significant celebrations, providing a symbol of unity and togetherness.
Beyond traditional cultural events, modern gatherings such as coffee tastings or brewing workshops can also incorporate elements of coffee ceremonies from around the world. By exposing participants to a variety of brewing methods, serving styles, and cultural customs, these events can foster a deeper appreciation and understanding of the diverse world of coffee.
In conclusion, coffee ceremonies are a beautiful and meaningful way for people to connect with one another and to honor their heritage. By exploring the similarities and differences in customs, adapting to modern times and new locations, and incorporating the ceremony into special events and gatherings, we can gain a greater appreciation for the diverse cultural significance of coffee and the many ways it brings people together.
FAQs on The Etiquette and Customs Observed During the Coffee Ceremony
1. What is the significance of the coffee ceremony in many cultures?
The coffee ceremony holds cultural and social importance, representing hospitality, respect, and an opportunity for community members and guests to bond, share conversations, and preserve traditions (Vega, 2015). It showcases values such as unity, cooperation, and respect for elders.
2. How does the process of the coffee ceremony generally unfold?
Typically, the coffee ceremony starts with fresh coffee beans being roasted over a charcoal brazier, filling the area with a pleasing aroma. Next, the beans are ground, brewed with water in a special pot called jebena or cezve, and served, often with rituals like burning incense and accompanying snacks or traditional breads (Georges, 2013).
3. Is there a specific role or designated person responsible for overseeing the coffee ceremony?
Yes, in many cultures, a designated host or hostess, typically a woman, oversees the coffee ceremony. This individual is responsible for the entire process, from roasting the beans to pouring the coffee into small, ornate cups (Hayaloglu, 2020). They ensure the ceremony proceeds smoothly and with respect.
4. Are guests expected to pour their own coffee during the ceremony?
No, guests are not expected to pour their own coffee. The host or hostess pours coffee for all participants, starting with the eldest guest and moving clockwise around the circle. Refusing a cup of coffee is considered impolite (Hayaloglu, 2020).
5. How many servings should one have during a coffee ceremony?
Traditionally, participants partake in at least three servings called abol, tona, and baraka, each with its own significance. The third round, baraka, symbolizes a blessing, and completing it represents respect and appreciation for the host (Georges, 2013).
6. What are some common accompaniments served during the coffee ceremony?
Common accompaniments during the coffee ceremony include traditional breads, popcorn, peanuts, or other small snacks. In some cultures, such as Ethiopian, guests are sometimes served a light meal before the coffee ritual to honor their presence (Vega, 2015).
Georges, T. (2013). Social functions of Ethiopian coffee ceremonies. Journal of Black Studies, 44(8), 802-822.
Hayaloglu, N. (2020). A traditional coffee ritual as intangible cultural values: An example of Turkey. Journal of Tourismology, 6(2), 67-75.
Vega, E. M. (2015). Loving Coffee: An Ethnographic Study of Latin American Immigrant Women in New York City (Doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University).